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CO2 Mechanics Blog

Practical knowledge, tools, tips and techniques for developing and implementing innovative CO2-enabled clean manufacturing processes, products, and production lines.


      • Forward

      • Scope And Objectives

      • The Co2 Backstory

      • Co2 Processing Technology

      • Co2 Processing Units

      • Contamination Control

      • Manufacturing Waste Minimization

      • Environmental Health Worker Safety

      • Co2 Application Profiles

      • Clean Solution Innovation Process

    • CO2 DATA

      • Co2 Properties

      • Co2 Diagrams

      • Co2 Safety And Health Data


      • Technical Terms

      • Blog Icons

      • How To Use This Blog

      • Copyright Notice

    • VIDEOS

      • Corporate Videos

      • Process Videos

      • Product Videos

    • AUTHOR

      • Author Bio

      • Dedications

    CO2 Backstory 1.3.2

    Centrifugal Liquid CO2 Immersion


    Design and development of a new high performance dense fluid immersion cleaning system began in late 1989. Previous studies at Hughes comparing the cleaning rates and efficacy between scCO2 and liquid CO2 showed that – although not as effective as scCO2 for certain polar or more complex (waxy) contaminants – liquid CO2 demonstrated higher contaminant carrying capacity and faster cleaning rates, particularly for non-polar oily hydrocarbon and silicone contaminants. Lack of solubility for a particular contamination was easily remedied with the addition of a suitable liquid CO2 fluid modifier (2% to 5% by vol.) comprising various mixtures of non-ionic surfactants (i.e., Dow Triton® X-15) dissolved in a carrier solvent such as a paraffin, ester, or alcohol.

    CO2 Backstory 1.3.1

    Early Supercritical and Liquid CO2 Processes

    Mr. Orval Buck

    The first CO2-based immersion cleaning system was constructed and tested by Mr. Orval Buck at Hughes Aircraft Company in 1984, essentially adapted from a German supercritical CO2 (scCO2) extraction process for decaffeinating green coffee beans [10]. Shown in Figure 1-4, the first scCO2 cleaning system comprised an insulated high pressure vessel (retrofitted isostatic press) which was temperature-regulated using flexible silicone-insulated heating tape and a thermostatic controller. A contaminated production part was loaded into the vessel through a topside threaded closure. Following purging with CO2 gas to remove internal atmosphere (i.e., residual air and moisture), the vessel was fluidized using a high pressure pneumatic pump supplied by a cylinder of high pressure liquid CO2. The vessel was compressed to various supercritical fluid conditions ranging between 2,000 and 5,000 psi with the pressure vessel heated to a temperature of between 40 and 60 degrees C.

    CO2 Backstory 1.3

    CO2 Technology Development

    Faster, Better and Cheaper

    CO2 technology described in this blog-eBook represents more than 30 years of process, application, and commercial product development beginning in 1984 and continuing to the present day. The old adage – Necessity is the Mother of Invention – has been and continues to be a major driving force behind the CO2 technology innovation process. Discrete cleaning, surface modification, cooling, purification, and recycling technologies represent derivatives – various CO2-enabled solutions ideated, developed, and advanced to jointly solve production cleaning and contamination control problems encountered in numerous end-user manufacturing applications to achieve specific performance requirements. In this regard, rapid changes in manufacturing technology, shrinking product features, and increasing global competitiveness have driven the need for sustainable manufacturing technology - faster processing, better performance, and a lower cost of production.



    Blog preview

    This eBook has been a long time in the making and continues to be a work in progress. Based on more than 30 years of carbon dioxide (CO2) technology development and commercialization, this eBook provides manufacturing engineers and managers with practical knowledge, tools and techniques for developing and implementing innovative CO2-enabled lean and green (clean) manufacturing processes, products and production lines. This eBook shows how CO2 technology can transform your product manufacturing operations using a holistic implementation approach – design for cleanability, build clean, and maintain clean protocols.



    Thank you

    To my wife, best friend, and colleague, Karen, for her enduring love and support all these years. To my brother, Rick and father, Richard on the other side, thank you for your love and support at the very start of this journey. You are both greatly missed and your contributions are forever appreciated.

    Technical Terms

    Technical Terms

    What does that mean


    An abundant and recycled gaseous by-product of industrial processes repurposed for precision cleaning, cooling, and surface modification applications in high-value or high-reliability hardware manufacturing operations.

    Copyright Notice

    Copyright Notice

    All rights reserved


    Blog to eBook

    Practical knowledge, tools, tips, and techniques for developing and implementing innovative CO2-enabled lean and green manufacturing processes, products, and production lines.

    How to use this blog

    How to use this blog

    This blog is an eBook

    Each chapter in this eBook is self-contained, which means you can start with whichever chapter or topic interests you the most. CO2Mechanics.Blog is a comprehensive guide for improving your knowledge of CO2 technology, implementing state-of-the-art CO2-Powered clean manufacturing solutions, and maximizing your return on investment in terms of reduced manufacturing waste in all of its possible forms.

    Blog Icons

    Blog Icons

    Icons used in this eBook

    Throughout this eBook, you will see small symbols called icons in the margins and these highlight special types of information presented or available (hyperlinked). These are shown in Figure I-1 and used to help you better understand and apply the material.









    Scope and Objectives

    Scope and Objectives

    Contamination is defined in many ways

    Contamination may be broadly defined as any material, substance, or energy which adversely affects the performance or function of a manufacturing process and/or manufactured product [adapted from “Contamination Control Engineering Design Guidelines for the Aerospace Community”, A.C. Tribble et al., Rockwell International Corporation, NASA Contractor Report 4740, May 1996]. By this broad definition contamination can be vapors, particles, films, residues, light, nuclear radiation, electromagnetic fields, electrostatic charge, and heat (or lack of heat), among many other examples. Furthermore, contamination can be organic, inorganic, ionic, biological, volatile, non-volatile, condensable, non-condensable, corrosive, or non-corrosive in nature.

    No Record Found.