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CO2 Mechanics Blog

Practical knowledge, tools, tips and techniques for developing and implementing innovative CO2-enabled clean manufacturing processes, products, and production lines.

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    • Forward

    • Scope and Objectives

    • The CO2 Backstory

    • History of CO2 Composite Spray

    • CO2 Processing Technology

    • CO2 Processing Units

    • Contamination Control

    • Manufacturing Waste Minimization

    • Environmental Health Worker Safety

    • CO2 Application Profiles

    • Clean Solution Innovation Process

    • CO2 Guy Presentations

  • CO2 DATA

    • CO2 Properties

    • CO2 Diagrams

    • CO2 Safety and Health Data

    • CO2 in the News


    • Technical Terms

    • Blog Icons

    • How to use this Blog

    • Copyright Notice


    • Corporate Videos

    • Process Videos

    • Product Videos


    • Author Bio

    • Dedications

    • Published Papers

History of CO2 Composite Spray Technology

The Short Story

CO2 Composite Spray Technology Development

CO2 Composite Spray™ technology can claim its beginnings going back to the late 1970’s with the introduction of Fong’s pellet blasting innovations when he was working for Lockheed Aircraft. CO2 pellet blasting employs a mixture of small (sublimable) solid CO2 pellets (used almost exclusively for food packing refrigeration) introduced into a compressed air stream to blast contaminated surfaces free of gross contamination.

Precision Cleaning for Historical Documents

ICPF Heritage Science Published Journal Article 2021 

Safe and Effective

ICPF Abstract (as published)

The cleaning of particles from smooth and rough paper surfaces using a high-speed CO2 snow jet was investigated. The measurements included characterization of the jet properties, determination of the cleaning efficiency, and evaluation of any possible adverse effects.

CO2 Processing Technology


CO2 Technology Improves Bondability

A manufactured product may require component surfaces to be joined using methods such as gluing, welding, soldering, and coating. The ability of a surface to be cohesively or adhesively joined or bonded to another surface is termed bondability.

CO2 in the News 04.23.21

Perseverance rover converts CO2 into oxygen on Mars for the first time

MOXIE produced five grams of oxygen, equal to 10 minutes of breathable oxygen for astronaut carrying out normal activity

CO2 Processing Technology


CO2 Improves Surface Wettability

A manufactured product may require component surfaces to provide fast and uniform spreading and contact of applied (liquids) adhesives, coatings, paints, sealants, underfills, or molten metals. The ability of surface to be wetted by another substance is termed wettability.

CO2 Application Profile

CO2 MQCL for Titanium Machining

Atmosphere. Optimized.


The past century has witnessed significant advancements in cutting machines, cutting tools, machine controls, processing materials, and cooling-lubrication chemistries. However, surprisingly very little has changed with regards to the application of coolants and lubricants during machining – the machining atmosphere.

CO2 Processing Technology


CO2 Improves Surface Cleanliness in Different Ways

A manufactured product may require components to have a certain maximum level of surface contaminants such as particles and oils to enable wetting, bonding, or machining operations, or to enable assembly, testing, or functional performance of the product. The ability of surface to be cleaned to a pre-determined and desired cleanliness level, efficiently and without damage to the surface or product, is termed cleanability.

CO2 Processing Technology

Surface Transformations

CO2 Changes Surfaces in Different Ways

The most practical and unique aspect of COprocessing technology is its ability to transform the chemical and physical nature of a manufactured surface, selectively or non-selectively, and in many different ways. Example surface transformations include dirty-to-clean, hot-to-cool, low surface free energy-to-high surface free energy, high outgassing-to-low outgassing, and non-polar-to-polar.

CO2 Processing Technology

Contaminant-Constrained Manufacturing Systems

Surface Contamination Constrains Manufacturing

Manufacturing systems comprise numerous processes and apparatuses needed to fabricate a product. In addition, manufacturing systems require inputs such as space, energy, materials, labor, and time. Processes include wire bonding, hard metal turning, precision assembly, adhesive bonding, welding, and inspection, among many other examples.

CO2 Processing Technology 2.2.3

CO2 Processing System


The CO2 processing system comprises three components, as follows:

    • Problem: a manufacturing system comprising a manufacturing apparatus and process (i.e., machining, bonding, assembly, fastening, testing) and a manufactured product (i.e., hardware, subassembly, workpiece, substrate) which is constrained in one or more ways by one or more contaminants (product or tool) present before, during, or following the manufacturing process.

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